In Shree Hanuman Cotton Mills and Anr. v. Tata Aircraft Limited [1970 (3) SCR 127], it was held-

From a review of the decisions cited above, the following principles emerge regarding “earnest”:

(1) It must be given at the moment at which the contract is concluded.

(2) It represents a guarantee that the contract will be fulfilled or, in other words, ‘earnest’ is given to bind the contract.

(3) It is part of the purchase price when the transaction is carried out.

(4) It is forfeited when the transaction falls through by reason of the default or failure of the purchaser.

(5) Unless there is anything to the contrary in the terms of the contract, on default committed by the buyer, the seller is entitled to forfeit the earnest.”

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