- Information betrayed must have necessary quality of confidence;
- Dutchess of Argyll vs. Duke of Argyll, 1965 1 All ER 611
- Campbell vs. Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd.  UKHL 22
- McKennitt vs. Ash  QB 73
- Mr. ‘X’ v. Hospital ‘Z‘,(1998) 8 SCC 296 [Full Text]
- It must have been imparted in circumstances which creates on obligation of confidence, and
- Zee Telefilms Limited and Anr. vs. Sundial Communications Private Limited & Ors., 2003 (27) PTC 457
- Mr. Anil Gupta and Anr. vs. Mr. Kunal Dasgupta and Ors., 97(2002) DLT 257
- It must be used in an unauthorized manner and to the detriment of the confider.
- Prince Albert vs. Strange,  EWHC Ch J20
- Douglas v Hello! Ltd.,  EWCA Civ 595
Note: It is no defence that the defendant did not know that he was misusing the confidential.